INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
POULTRY SCIENCE


Volume 2 July - August 2003 Number 4

Evaluation of Fish Meal Replaced with Leaf Protein Concentrate from Glyricidia in Diets for Broiler - Chicks: Effect on Performance, Muscle Growth, Haematology and Serum Metabolites [Abstract] [Full Text]

Role of Maternal Antibodies in Protection Against Infectious Bursal Disease in Commercial Broilers [Abstract] [Full Text]

Influence of Feed Type on Egg Production of Tswana Laying Chicken [Abstract] [Full Text]

Evidence for the Innervation of Sperm-host Glands (SHG) of Native Chicken's (Gallus domesticus) Oviduct [Abstract] [Full Text]

Effect of Breed and Holding Period on Egg Quality Characteristics of Chicken [Abstract] [Full Text]

Effect of Introgressing Dwarf Gene from Bangladeshi Indigenous to Exotic Breeds on Egg Production [Abstract] [Full Text]

Prevalence and Economic Losses Due to Infectious Bursal Disease in Broilers in Mirpur and Kotli Districts of Kashmir [Abstract] [Full Text]

Performance of Broiler - Chickens Fed on Maggot Meal in Place of Fishmeal [Abstract] [Full Text]

Egg Production Performance and Prediction of Standard Limits for Traits of Economic Importance in Broiler Breeders [Abstract] [Full Text]


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 242-250, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Evaluation of Fish Meal Replaced with Leaf Protein Concentrate from Glyricidia in Diets for Broiler - Chicks: Effect on Performance, Muscle Growth, Haematology and Serum Metabolites

J. O. Agbede and V. A. Aletor
Division of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Animal Production and Health,
The Federal University of Technology, Akure - Nigeria
E-mail: joagbede@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The equi-protein replacement of fishmeal (FM) protein with Glyricidia leaf protein concentrate (GLPC) was evaluated in diets for broiler chicks. Prior to the feeding trial, the GLPC was analyzed for the amino acids and any phytin and tannin contents. Thereafter, five diets were formulated. The control (diet 1) contained 5% FM whose protein was gradually replaced at 25, 50, 75 or 100% with GLPC in diets 2 to 5. Thus the inclusion level of GLPC was 1.81, 3.62, 5.43 or 7.24 respectively for diets 2 to 5. A batch of 300 starter-chicks was randomly assigned in triplicate to these dietary treatments (60 chicks/treatment). The final weight and average weight gain of the chicks fed 1.81% GLPC - based diet was similar (P = 0.05) to those fed the control diet; both being significantly (P = 0.05) higher than those fed 3.62, 5.43 or 7.24% GLPC - based diets. The weight gain, average feed consumption as well as feed efficiency declined as the level of GLPC in the diets increased at the expense of FM protein. Nitrogen retention (NR) of chicks fed 1.81, 3.62 or 5.43% GLPC - based diets was similar to those fed the control diet. At the end of the feeding trial, the chicks were sacrificed for carcass characteristics, relative organ and muscle measurements as well as blood and serum analyses. Relative weights of the heart and belly fat were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments. Among the muscles weighed, only the relative weight of Pectorialis thoracicus was significantly (P< 0.05) influenced. The weight of P. thoracicus was highest in chicks fed 1.81% GLPC - based diet among the test diets and was similar to those fed the control diet (P = 0.05). Relative lengths of Supra coracoideus and P. thoracicus averaged 17.6 and 20.7 cmkg-1 body weight, respectively while the relative breadth averaged 3.9 and 8.4cmkg-1 body weight, respectively. These values did not vary widely as indicated by the low coefficient of variations. Among the haematological indices, only the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) significantly (P = 0.05) increased as the level of GLPC increased in the diets while the serum constituents showed no consistent trends related to the dietary treatments. It was concluded that FM protein in the diet for broiler - chicks can be replaced by 25% with GLPC protein without adverse effect on performance, carcass characteristics, muscle development or haematological variables in broiler - chicks.

Key words: Fishmeal protein, Glyricidia leaf protein concentrate, Pectorialis thoracicus


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 251-255, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Role of Maternal Antibodies in Protection Against Infectious
Bursal Disease in Commercial Broilers


Zaheer Ahmed1 and Saeed Akhter2
1Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Agha Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
E-mail: zadani2000@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Chicks from broiler breeders with known Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) vaccination history were examined for residual maternal and experimentally induced antibodies and their role in protection against IBDV. Maternal antibodies in unvaccinated chickens persisted in chicks up to 21 days as determined by ELISA with complete decay by 28 and 35 days. Experimental challenge with live IBDV protected chicks up to 14 days and resulted in 10 to 20% mortality thereafter. However, a group vaccinated with Bursine-2 and challenged with IBDV exhibited mortality in the first week post hatch and followed by complete protection until 8 weeks. These studies suggest that while maternal antibodies against IBDV persist and may protect chicks during the first 14 days of age, they may also interfere with earlier vaccine-mediated protection. Depending upon the flock IBDV antibody status, a customized vaccination regimen may be crucial for complete protection.

Key words: IBDV, maternal antibodies, vaccination


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 256-258, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Influence of Feed Type on Egg Production of Tswana Laying Chicken

A. A. Aganga, S. O. Tshwenyane and L. Molefhe
Botswana College of Agriculture, P/Bag 0027, Gaborone
E-mail: aaganga@bca.bw

Abstract:

The experiment was done at estate management Unit in Sebele, Gaborone. Ten 23 weeks old laying Tswana chickens were bought from a local farmer and divided into two groups of five each, using complete randomized design. Group one was fed on layer mash and the other group was fed on composite local feed which was a mixture of sorghum, maize and sunflower traditionally used as a supplementary feed under free range system in Botswana. All layers were dewormed using Piperazine and treated with oxytetrazine to present disease. 250g of feed and 200ml of water were provided ad-libitum. The layers were individually caged to monitor daily feed and water intake. Collection and weighing of eggs were done every day for 90 days. Tswana layers fed on layers mash produced on average five eggs per week while those on composite local feed produced one egg per week that is 400% more production on layers compared to local supplementary feed.

Key words: Tswana chickens, egg production, crude protein


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 259-260, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Evidence for the Innervation of Sperm-host Glands (SHG) of Native Chicken's (Gallus domesticus) Oviduct

S. K. Das
Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Science,
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
Email: shonkor@royalten.net

Abstract:

The presence of neural tissues and smooth muscle elements in the vicinity of the oviductal sperm-host glands at uterovaginal junction of deshi chicken was demonstrated by medium (X40) and high (100X) light microscopy. Relevant samples were collected and passed through H and E stain in histology laboratory of the Department of Anatomy and Histology, BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Smaller and segregated nerve ganglions were observed in the submucosa and also in the lamina propria of the core of the villi by bright field microscopy. Smooth muscle fibers were also obvious in the surrounding areas. The evidence for the innervation of the sperm-host glands in chicken's oviduct suggested that it might have a functional role in oviductal sperm storage in and release of spermatozoa from, the sperm-host glands of native hens.

Key words: Innervation, sperm-host gland, oviduct and native chicken


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 261-263, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Effect of Breed and Holding Period on Egg Quality
Characteristics of Chicken


K. N. Monira, M. Salahuddin and G. Miah
Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka-1341, Bangladesh

Abstract:

The external and internal qualities of 80 fresh eggs from each Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR), White Leg horn (WL), Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Rock (WR) layers were ascertained in one, seven, fourteen and twenty-one days holding periods. Egg weight was highest in WLH (58.38 g), intermediate in BPR (56.3g) and RIR (55.95g) and lowest in WR (59.60g). Egg length was highest in WLH (5.91 cm), intermediate in BPR (5.86 cm) and RIR (5.71 cm) and lowest in WR (5.62 cm). Egg width was highest in WLH (4.21 cm), intermediate in BPR and WR (4.16 cm) and lowest in RIR (4.13 cm). Shape index was highest in WR (74.10), intermediate in RIR (72.32) and WLH (71.34) and lowest in BPR (71.14). Breaking strength was highest in WLH egg (3.38 kg/cm), intermediate in RIR (3.31 kg/cm) and BPR (2.61 kg/cm) and lowest in WR (2.19 kg/cm) egg. Albumen height of WR, WLH, BPR and RIR egg was 4.66, 4.33, 4.19 and 3.60 mm respectively. Haugh unit was highest in WR (58.68), intermediate in WLH (45.81) and BPR (54.20) and lowest in RIR (45.81). Shell thickness was highest in WLH and RIR (0.35 mm), intermediate in WR (0.32 mm) and lowest in BPR (0.31 mm). There were significant difference among the breeds and holding period for all the egg quality traits except egg width. Breed and holding period interactions were significant for egg length, shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit but not for other traits. The egg weight, egg length, egg width, albumen height and Haugh unit of all breeds were higher in fresh egg that means one days egg but breaking strength and shell thickness were higher in seven days holding period eggs than the other period eggs. The egg weight, egg length, egg width, breaking strength performance is superior in White Leghorn over other breeds. Shape index and albumen height is better in White Rock than other breeds.

Key words: Breed, holding period, egg quality, chicken


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 264-266, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Effect of Introgressing Dwarf Gene from Bangladeshi Indigenous
to Exotic Breeds on Egg Production


T. Yeasmin2, M. A. R. Howlider1 and M. U. Ahammad1
1Department of Poultry Science, Faculty of Animal Husbandry,
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
2Department of Dairy and Poultry Science, Dinajpur Government Veterinary College,
Dinajpur, Bangladesh

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of introgressing autosomal recessive dwarf gene (adw) from Bangladeshi indigenous (deshi) dwarf (DD) chicken to Rhode Island Red (RIR), White Leghorn (WLH) and Fayoumi (FO) on body weight and egg production. Deshi normal (DN), DD, RIR, WLH and FO were used in crossings to produce 8 genotypes; RIR, WLH, FO, DN, DD, RIR x DD, WLH x DD and FO x DD. At 19 weeks of age, for separation of crossbreds into normal and dwarf on the basis of shank length, altogether gave 11 genetic groups; RIR, WLH, FO, DN, DD, RIR x DD normal, WLH x DD normal, FO x DD normal, RIR x DD dwarf, WLH x DD dwarf and FO x DD dwarf. At 19 weeks of age, 154 pullets; 14 from each genetic group were individually caged up to 42 weeks of age to compare egg production performance. Introgression of adw gene significantly reduced mature body weight and feed intake and adw pullets utilized feed more efficiently into egg mass in comparison with their normal size counterparts. Conservation and improvement of deshi adw chicken is suggested for their future use in breeding for egg production.

Key words: Autosomal, dwarf, conservation and indigenous


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 267-270, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Prevalence and Economic Losses Due to Infectious Bursal Disease in
Broilers in Mirpur and Kotli Districts of Kashmir


M. Farooq, F. R. Durrani, N. Imran, Z. Durrani and N. Chand
Poultry Science Department, NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan
E-mail: durraniff@yahoo.com

Abstract:

A systematic investigation was performed on the outbreaks of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) using data compiled during the years 1997 and 1998 from 50 broiler farms in Mirpur and Kotli districts. Average mortality due to IBD was 15.311.04% with a coefficient of variation of 48.04%. Farms located at various places and vitamin supplementation had no effect on mortality caused by IBD. Season, floor space/broiler, age of the bird, immunization schedule, interval between two batches, presence of coccidiosis in a flock and hygienic status of the farm had a significant effect (p<0.01) on prevalence of IBD. Higher losses (p<0.05) were found due to IBD in winter (19.842.10%) than those tabulated in spring season (9.002.74%). Losses were found to be higher (p<0.05) in over crowded houses (20.343.93%; <0.09m2/broiler) than in under (12.562.53%; >0.09m2/broiler) or optimally utilized housing (13.041.06%; 0.09m2/broiler). Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found in broilers at the age above 32 days (17.661.51%) than in broilers at 19-23 days of age (12.421.97%). Prevalence of IBD was higher (p<0.05) in those flocks immunized only once in their production life (23.031.27%) than in those produced under a standard immunization schedule (7.614.89%). Losses due to IBD were also higher when the duration between two batches was one week (22.2810.28%) than at four week duration between two batches (12.802.78%). Insignificant differences were assessed in losses due to IBD when inter flock interval was either 2 or 3 week periods. Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found due to IBD in flocks experiencing coccidiosis problem (17.901.20%) than those having no coccidiosis problem before the onset of IBD (12.731.85%). Losses were less in flocks maintained under good hygienic conditions (6.031.33%) than those under poor hygienic conditions (21.632.19%). Mean economic losses due to IBD per broiler flock of 1734.50119.91 and a flock of 1000 birds were Rs. 7846.871169.81/ and Rs. 4523.99447.56/, respectively. Economic losses/year for the aforementioned flocks was Rs. 31701.382345.36/- and Rs. 18276.962388.91/-, respectively. Optimal utilization of floor space/broiler, protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions, following recommended immunization schedule, maintenance of good hygienic conditions at the farm and a flock interval of at least more than one week are suggested as important factors for reducing losses due to IBD in broilers in Mirpur and Kotli districts of Kashmir.

Key words: Bursal disease, hygiene, flock interval, coccidiosis


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 271-274, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Performance of Broiler - Chickens Fed on Maggot Meal
in Place of Fishmeal


Awoniyi T. A. M., V. A. Aletor and J. M. Aina
Department of Animal Production and Health, The Federal University of Technology,
P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Abstract:

Ninety 3-week old broiler-chickens were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets in which maggot-meal (MGM) which was first subjected to proximate analysis replaced 25, 50, 75 and 100% fishmeal (FM). The proximate analysis showed that MGM had 55.1% crude protein, 20.7% fat and 0.2% NFE. The data analysis, showed that weight gain (WG) Feed consumption (FC) and Feed efficiency (FE) for the chickens between 3-6 weeks of age were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment whereas the WG, FC, FE, the nitrogen retention (NR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) for the 3-9 week old were significantly (P>0.05) influenced by dietary treatment: The diet with 25% of FM protein replaced with MGM was the most efficient in terms of average weekly WG and PER. The live, dressed and eviscerated weights as well as the relative length, breadth and weights of the pectoral and gastrocnemius muscles of the chickens at 9 weeks were not significantly influenced by the diets. It was concluded that MGM is an inexpensive replacement for FM in broiler-chick feeding.

Key words: Broiler - chicken, diet, maggot-meal, fishmeal


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International Journal of Poultry Science 2 (4): 275-279, 2003
Asian Network for Scientific Information 2003


Egg Production Performance and Prediction of Standard Limits for Traits of Economic Importance in Broiler Breeders

Murad Ali, M. Farooq, F. R. Durrani, N. Chand, K. Sarbiland and A. Riaz
Department of Poultry Science, NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan
E-mail: durraniff@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder farm was 19076.29, out of which 16449.08 birds attained sexual maturity and were housed in laying houses. Total hens housed represented 14037.32 females and 1559.70 males (a male to female ratio of 1:9). Reserved male stock (852.06 birds) was 5.18% of the total population. Average mortality during 323.46 days of growth and production period was 13.77%, representing 2.97, 4.99 and 5.81% mortality during brooding, growing and laying periods, respectively. Average age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay and egg laying period were 164.67, 232.83 and 155.46 days. Age at point-of-lay (r = 0.227) and age at peak-of-lay (r = 0.333) were found positively but non-significantly correlated with total mortality in a flock. On the other hand flock size was found negatively correlated with age at point (r = -0.052) and age at peak-of lay (r = -0.415; p<0.04). Egg laying period was found negatively but non-significantly correlated with flock size (r = -0.147) and positively correlated with total mortality in a flock (r = 0.255). Egg laying period was found positively and significantly (P<0.027) associated with percent lay (b = 5.770). Average peak percent lay and percent lay was 83.09 and 59.67%, respectively. Percent lay was found non-significantly and positively correlated with flock size (r=0.184) and mortality ( = 0.085). Similar findings were observed for peak percent lay. Percent lay was found positively and significantly (P<0.033) associated with peak percent lay (b = 0.625). Peak percent lay was found negatively associated with age at peak of lay (b = -0.324; P<0.001) and positively associated with age at point of lay (b = 0.891; P<0.001). Average hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 103.32 and 95.10 eggs, respectively. Hen-day (r = -0.067) and hen-housed egg production (r = -0.074) was found negatively and non-significantly correlated with flock size. Hen-day egg production was found positively associated with peak percent lay (b = 1.600; P<0.035) and egg laying period (b = 0.627; P<0.001). Percent lay, peak percent lay, egg laying period and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was lower than that reported in the literature. Standard limits for minimum number of hens to be housed, maximum level of mortality, maximum age at point of lay, maximum age at peak of lay, minimum peak percent lay, minimum percent lay, egg laying period in response to percent lay and egg laying period in response to hen-day production were 4172.21 birds, 13.11%, 164.36 days, 35.33 weeks, 79.99%, 67.64%, 28.06 weeks and 65.54 weeks, respectively. The standard limits mentioned for various traits shall be maintained in order to make broiler farming more productive.

Key words: Egg production, broiler breeders, flock size, egg laying period


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